Production of microbial cultures
Long before people were conscious about the existence of microorganisms, they were already largely used in the transformation of milk-based foods, meats, fish, vegetables and fruits.
In the 1800 century, a number of scientific studies were conducted, supporting the selection of bacteria and the development of new technologies to improve the quality and regularity of fermented products.
2 categories of microorganisms
Today we can divide cultures into two categories:
- Starters and bulk starters also called natural or traditional cultures the use of which is decreasing in developed countries. They come from milk that has not undergone any sanitation treatment or from back-slopping (the reuse of a fraction of the previous production). Their composition is complex and varies according to their origin.
- Selected industrially produced cultures that are composed of pure strains, alone or in combination which are manufactured after careful selection process under strictly controlled conditions. They are sold in liquid, frozen or freeze-dried formats.